Note, it is still in its infancy, and while it produces proper hex files to be programmed, it has its rough edges and limitations. Please read the release notes, and see if a more applicable solution would not be to use Wine. If you downloaded gsasm you will have also obtained a copy of gSXprog.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Archived from the original on July 31st, Microchip Technology.
Categories : Microcontrollers Parallax, Inc. Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles with style issues from February All articles with style issues All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. As markets change ever more rapidly, so does demand. In short, your customers want you to be flexible.
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In either case, shifts counts of greater then 31 are performed modulo Control Flow Instructions The x86 processor maintains an instruction pointer IP register that is a bit value indicating the location in memory where the current instruction starts. Normally, it increments to point to the next instruction in memory begins after execution an instruction. The IP register cannot be manipulated directly, but is updated implicitly by provided control flow instructions. Labels can be inserted anywhere in x86 assembly code text by entering a label name followed by a colon.
Elsewhere in the code, we can refer to the memory location that this instruction is located at in memory using the more convenient symbolic name begin. This label is just a convenient way of expressing the location instead of its bit value. The contents of the machine status word include information about the last arithmetic operation performed.
For example, one bit of this word indicates if the last result was zero. Another indicates if the last result was negative. Based on these condition codes, a number of conditional jumps can be performed. For example, the jz instruction performs a jump to the specified operand label if the result of the last arithmetic operation was zero. Otherwise, control proceeds to the next instruction in sequence.
A number of the conditional branches are given names that are intuitively based on the last operation performed being a special compare instruction, cmp see below. For example, conditional branches such as jle and jne are based on first performing a cmp operation on the desired operands.
Otherwise, continue to the next instruction. This instruction is equivalent to the sub instruction, except the result of the subtraction is discarded instead of replacing the first operand. The call instruction first pushes the current code location onto the hardware supported stack in memory see the push instruction for details , and then performs an unconditional jump to the code location indicated by the label operand.
Unlike the simple jump instructions, the call instruction saves the location to return to when the subroutine completes. The ret instruction implements a subroutine return mechanism. This instruction first pops a code location off the hardware supported in-memory stack see the pop instruction for details. It then performs an unconditional jump to the retrieved code location. The calling convention is a protocol about how to call and return from routines.
For example, given a set of calling convention rules, a programmer need not examine the definition of a subroutine to determine how parameters should be passed to that subroutine. Furthermore, given a set of calling convention rules, high-level language compilers can be made to follow the rules, thus allowing hand-coded assembly language routines and high-level language routines to call one another.
A good way to visualize the operation of the calling convention is to draw the contents of the nearby region of the stack during subroutine execution. The image above depicts the contents of the stack during the execution of a subroutine with three parameters and three local variables.
The cells depicted in the stack are bit wide memory locations, thus the memory addresses of the cells are 4 bytes apart. The first parameter resides at an offset of 8 bytes from the base pointer. Above the parameters on the stack and below the base pointer , the call instruction placed the return address, thus leading to an extra 4 bytes of offset from the base pointer to the first parameter.
When the ret instruction is used to return from the subroutine, it will jump to the return address stored on the stack. Caller Rules To make a subrouting call, the caller should: Before calling a subroutine, the caller should save the contents of certain registers that are designated caller-saved.
Since the called subroutine is allowed to modify these registers, if the caller relies on their values after the subroutine returns, the caller must push the values in these registers onto the stack so they can be restore after the subroutine returns. To pass parameters to the subroutine, push them onto the stack before the call.
The parameters should be pushed in inverted order i. Since the stack grows down, the first parameter will be stored at the lowest address this inversion of parameters was historically used to allow functions to be passed a variable number of parameters. To call the subroutine, use the call instruction. This instruction places the return address on top of the parameters on the stack, and branches to the subroutine code. This invokes the subroutine, which should follow the callee rules below.
After the subroutine returns immediately following the call instruction , the caller can expect to find the return value of the subroutine in the register EAX. To restore the machine state, the caller should: Remove the parameters from stack. This restores the stack to its state before the call was performed. The caller can assume that no other registers were modified by the subroutine. Example The code below shows a function call that follows the caller rules.
First parameter is in EAX, the second parameter is the constant ; the third parameter is in memory location var. Thus, to get rid of the parameters, we can simply add 12 to the stack pointer. If the caller uses them after the call, it would have needed to save them on the stack before the call and restore them after it. Callee Rules The definition of the subroutine should adhere to the following rules at the beginning of the subroutine: Push the value of EBP onto the stack, and then copy the value of ESP into EBP using the following instructions: push ebp mov ebp, esp This initial action maintains the base pointer , EBP.
The base pointer is used by convention as a point of reference for finding parameters and local variables on the stack. When a subroutine is executing, the base pointer holds a copy of the stack pointer value from when the subroutine started executing. Parameters and local variables will always be located at known, constant offsets away from the base pointer value. We push the old base pointer value at the beginning of the subroutine so that we can later restore the appropriate base pointer value for the caller when the subroutine returns.
Remember, the caller is not expecting the subroutine to change the value of the base pointer. We then move the stack pointer into EBP to obtain our point of reference for accessing parameters and local variables. Next, allocate local variables by making space on the stack.
Recall, the stack grows down, so to make space on the top of the stack, the stack pointer should be decremented. The amount by which the stack pointer is decremented depends on the number and size of local variables needed. For example, if 3 local integers 4 bytes each were required, the stack pointer would need to be decremented by 12 to make space for these local variables i.
As with parameters, local variables will be located at known offsets from the base pointer. In the body of the subroutine we can see the use of the base pointer. Both parameters and local variables are located at constant offsets from the base pointer for the duration of the subroutines execution.
In particular, we notice that since parameters were placed onto the stack before the subroutine was called, they are always located below the base pointer i. Similarly, since local variables are allocated after the base pointer is set, they always reside above the base pointer i. This conventional use of the base pointer allows us to quickly identify the use of local variables and parameters within a function body. Figure 1. Data declarations should be preceded by the. DATA directive. Following this directive, the directives DB , DW , and DD can be used to declare one, two, and four byte data locations, respectively.
Declared locations can be labeled with names for later reference — this is similar to declaring variables by name, but abides by some lower level rules. For example, locations declared in sequence will be located in memory next to one another. Some examples: Z DD 1, 2, 3 ; Declare three 4-byte values, initialized to 1, 2, and 3.
The addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, store and comparison instructions include instruction modes that pop the top of the stack after their operation is complete. Various instruction technologies support different operations on different register sets, but taken as complete whole from MMX to SSE4. So for example, paddw mm0, mm1 performs 4 parallel bit indicated by the w integer adds indicated by the padd of mm0 values to mm1 and stores the result in mm0.
Some other unusual instructions have been added including a sum of absolute differences used for motion estimation in video compression , such as is done in MPEG and a bit multiply accumulation instruction useful for software-based alpha-blending and digital filtering. These instruction sets also include numerous fixed sub-word instructions for shuffling, inserting and extracting the values around within the registers.
The x86 processor also includes complex addressing modes for addressing memory with an immediate offset, a register, a register with an offset, a scaled register with or without an offset, and a register with an optional offset and another scaled register. In general x86 processors can load and use memory matched to the size of any register it is operating on.
The SIMD instructions also include half-load instructions. In principle, because the instruction opcode is separate from the addressing mode byte, those instructions are orthogonal because any of those opcodes can be mixed-and-matched with any addressing mode. However, the x86 instruction set is generally considered non-orthogonal because many other opcodes have some fixed addressing mode they have no addressing mode byte , and every register is special.
The implicit segment registers used are ds for si and es for di. The cx or ecx register is used as a decrementing counter, and the operation stops when the counter reaches zero or for scans and comparisons when inequality is detected.
The stack is implemented with an implicitly decrementing push and incrementing pop stack pointer. The stack pointer actually points to the last value that was stored, under the assumption that its size will match the operating mode of the processor i. Values for a SIMD load or store are assumed to be packed in adjacent positions for the SIMD register and will align them in sequential little-endian order.
Some SSE load and store instructions require byte alignment to function properly. The SIMD instruction sets also include "prefetch" instructions which perform the load but do not target any register, used for cache loading. The SSE instruction sets also include non-temporal store instructions which will perform stores straight to memory without performing a cache allocate if the destination is not already cached otherwise it will behave like a regular store.
Most generic integer and floating point but no SIMD instructions can use one parameter as a complex address as the second source parameter. Integer instructions can also accept one memory parameter as a destination operand. The x86 assembly has an unconditional jump operation, jmp , which can take an immediate address, a register or an indirect address as a parameter note that most RISC processors only support a link register or short immediate displacement for jumping.
Many arithmetic and logic operations set, clear or complement these flags depending on their result. The comparison cmp compare and test instructions set the flags as if they had performed a subtraction or a bitwise AND operation, respectively, without altering the values of the operands.
There are also instructions such as clc clear carry flag and cmc complement carry flag which work on the flags directly. Floating point comparisons are performed via fcom or ficom instructions which eventually have to be converted to integer flags.
Each jump operation has three different forms, depending on the size of the operand. A short jump uses an 8-bit signed operand, which is a relative offset from the current instruction. A near jump is similar to a short jump but uses a bit signed operand in real or protected mode or a bit signed operand in bit protected mode only. A far jump is one that uses the full segment base:offset value as an absolute address. There are also indirect and indexed forms of each of these. In addition to the simple jump operations, there are the call call a subroutine and ret return from subroutine instructions.
Before transferring control to the subroutine, call pushes the segment offset address of the instruction following the call onto the stack; ret pops this value off the stack, and jumps to it, effectively returning the flow of control to that part of the program. In the case of a far call , the segment base is pushed following the offset; far ret pops the offset and then the segment base to return.
There are also two similar instructions, int interrupt , which saves the current E FLAGS register value on the stack, then performs a far call , except that instead of an address, it uses an interrupt vector , an index into a table of interrupt handler addresses. Typically, the interrupt handler saves all other CPU registers it uses, unless they are used to return the result of an operation to the calling program in software called interrupts.
The matching return from interrupt instruction is iret , which restores the flags after returning. Soft Interrupts of the type described above are used by some operating systems for system calls , and can also be used in debugging hard interrupt handlers. Hard interrupts are triggered by external hardware events, and must preserve all register values as the state of the currently executing program is unknown.
In Protected Mode, interrupts may be set up by the OS to trigger a task switch, which will automatically save all registers of the active task. Using interrupt 21h for output — other samples use libc 's printf to print to stdout. Running it under strace verifies that no extra system calls are made in the process. The printf version would make many more system calls to initialize libc and do dynamic linking. But this is a static executable because we linked using ld without -pie or any shared libraries; the only instructions that run in user-space are the ones you provide.
Flags are heavily used for comparisons in the x86 architecture. When a comparison is made between two data, the CPU sets the relevant flag or flags. Following this, conditional jump instructions can be used to check the flags and branch to code that should run, e.
Flags are also used in the x86 architecture to turn on and off certain features or execution modes. For example, to disable all maskable interrupts, you can use the instruction:. The flags register can also be directly accessed. The low 8 bits of the flag register can be loaded into ah using the lahf instruction.
The entire flags register can also be moved on and off the stack using the instructions pushf , popf , int including into and iret. The instruction pointer is called ip in bit mode, eip in bit mode, and rip in bit mode.
This sequence of instructions generates position-independent code because call takes an instruction-pointer-relative immediate operand describing the offset in bytes of the target instruction from the next instruction in this case 0. Writing to the instruction pointer is simple — a jmp instruction sets the instruction pointer to the target address, so, for example, a sequence like the following will put the contents of eax into eip :.
In bit mode, instructions can reference data relative to the instruction pointer, so there is less need to copy the value of the instruction pointer to another register. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Family of backward-compatible assembly languages. For a specific list of x86 assembly language instructions, see x86 instruction listings.
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This will be argument to printf call printf ;calls printf add esp , 4 ;advances stack-pointer by 4 flushing out the pushed string argument ret ;return.
SIPLACE SX: Capacity-on-demand placement machine for high-mix electronics production environments. Interchangeable SX gantries let you scale performance up. Here's the androider-games.ru put questions in next post. ; ;DETAILS: ; This code demonstrates configuring the I/O pin direction (input/output). androider-games.ru › ASM Assembly Systems.