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Stay relaxed and comfortable, even after long cycle tours, with the PonSo experience. Please select your preferred language below: Deutsch. English GB. Junior Linok Talok Ant Fink. Spare parts. Shoes Helmets. Bike locks. Luggage racks. Mounts Adapters. They filter food particles out of the water flowing through them. Particles larger than 50 micrometers cannot enter the ostia and pinacocytes consume them by phagocytosis engulfing and intracellular digestion.
Particles from 0. These particles are consumed by pinacocytes or by archaeocytes which partially extrude themselves through the walls of the ostia. Bacteria-sized particles, below 0. At least one species of sponge has internal fibers that function as tracks for use by nutrient-carrying archaeocytes,  and these tracks also move inert objects.
It used to be claimed that glass sponges could live on nutrients dissolved in sea water and were very averse to silt. Sponges' cells absorb oxygen by diffusion from water into cells as water flows through body, into which carbon dioxide and other soluble waste products such as ammonia also diffuse.
Archeocytes remove mineral particles that threaten to block the ostia, transport them through the mesohyl and generally dump them into the outgoing water current, although some species incorporate them into their skeletons. In waters where the supply of food particles is very poor, some species prey on crustaceans and other small animals. So far only species have been discovered. The cave-dwelling predators capture crustaceans under 1 mm 0.
Most known carnivorous sponges have completely lost the water flow system and choanocytes. However, the genus Chondrocladia uses a highly modified water flow system to inflate balloon-like structures that are used for capturing prey. Freshwater sponges often host green algae as endosymbionts within archaeocytes and other cells, and benefit from nutrients produced by the algae. Many marine species host other photosynthesizing organisms, most commonly cyanobacteria but in some cases dinoflagellates.
A recently discovered carnivorous sponge that lives near hydrothermal vents hosts methane-eating bacteria, and digests some of them. Sponges do not have the complex immune systems of most other animals. However, they reject grafts from other species but accept them from other members of their own species. In a few marine species, gray cells play the leading role in rejection of foreign material.
When invaded, they produce a chemical that stops movement of other cells in the affected area, thus preventing the intruder from using the sponge's internal transport systems. If the intrusion persists, the grey cells concentrate in the area and release toxins that kill all cells in the area.
The "immune" system can stay in this activated state for up to three weeks. Sponges have three asexual methods of reproduction: after fragmentation; by budding ; and by producing gemmules. Fragments of sponges may be detached by currents or waves. They use the mobility of their pinacocytes and choanocytes and reshaping of the mesohyl to re-attach themselves to a suitable surface and then rebuild themselves as small but functional sponges over the course of several days.
The same capabilities enable sponges that have been squeezed through a fine cloth to regenerate. Gemmules are "survival pods" which a few marine sponges and many freshwater species produce by the thousands when dying and which some, mainly freshwater species, regularly produce in autumn. Spongocytes make gemmules by wrapping shells of spongin, often reinforced with spicules, round clusters of archeocytes that are full of nutrients.
Gemmules from the same species but different individuals can join forces to form one sponge. Most sponges are hermaphrodites function as both sexes simultaneously , although sponges have no gonads reproductive organs. Sperm are produced by choanocytes or entire choanocyte chambers that sink into the mesohyl and form spermatic cysts while eggs are formed by transformation of archeocytes , or of choanocytes in some species.
Each egg generally acquires a yolk by consuming "nurse cells". During spawning, sperm burst out of their cysts and are expelled via the osculum. If they contact another sponge of the same species, the water flow carries them to choanocytes that engulf them but, instead of digesting them, metamorphose to an ameboid form and carry the sperm through the mesohyl to eggs, which in most cases engulf the carrier and its cargo.
A few species release fertilized eggs into the water, but most retain the eggs until they hatch. There are four types of larvae, but all are balls of cells with an outer layer of cells whose flagellae or cilia enable the larvae to move. After swimming for a few days the larvae sink and crawl until they find a place to settle. Most of the cells transform into archeocytes and then into the types appropriate for their locations in a miniature adult sponge.
Glass sponge embryos start by dividing into separate cells, but once 32 cells have formed they rapidly transform into larvae that externally are ovoid with a band of cilia round the middle that they use for movement, but internally have the typical glass sponge structure of spicules with a cobweb-like main syncitium draped around and between them and choanosyncytia with multiple collar bodies in the center.
The larvae then leave their parents' bodies. Sponges in temperate regions live for at most a few years, but some tropical species and perhaps some deep-ocean ones may live for years or more. Some calcified demosponges grow by only 0. Some sponges start sexual reproduction when only a few weeks old, while others wait until they are several years old.
Adult sponges lack neurons or any other kind of nervous tissue. However, most species have the ability to perform movements that are coordinated all over their bodies, mainly contractions of the pinacocytes , squeezing the water channels and thus expelling excess sediment and other substances that may cause blockages. Some species can contract the osculum independently of the rest of the body.
Sponges may also contract in order to reduce the area that is vulnerable to attack by predators. In cases where two sponges are fused, for example if there is a large but still unseparated bud, these contraction waves slowly become coordinated in both of the " Siamese twins ". The coordinating mechanism is unknown, but may involve chemicals similar to neurotransmitters. Sponges contain genes very similar to those that contain the "recipe" for the post- synaptic density, an important signal-receiving structure in the neurons of all other animals.
However, in sponges these genes are only activated in "flask cells" that appear only in larvae and may provide some sensory capability while the larvae are swimming. This raises questions about whether flask cells represent the predecessors of true neurons or are evidence that sponges' ancestors had true neurons but lost them as they adapted to a sessile lifestyle.
Sponges are worldwide in their distribution, living in a wide range of ocean habitats, from the polar regions to the tropics. Sponges are more abundant but less diverse in temperate waters than in tropical waters, possibly because organisms that prey on sponges are more abundant in tropical waters.
Demosponges and calcareous sponges are abundant and diverse in shallower non-polar waters. The different classes of sponge live in different ranges of habitat:. Sponges with photosynthesizing endosymbionts produce up to three times more oxygen than they consume, as well as more organic matter than they consume. Such contributions to their habitats' resources are significant along Australia's Great Barrier Reef but relatively minor in the Caribbean.
Many sponges shed spicules , forming a dense carpet several meters deep that keeps away echinoderms which would otherwise prey on the sponges. One of many examples includes ageliferin. A few species, the Caribbean fire sponge Tedania ignis , cause a severe rash in humans who handle them. It is often said that sponges produce chemical defenses against such predators.
Predation by fish may even help to spread sponges by detaching fragments. Glass sponges produce no toxic chemicals, and live in very deep water where predators are rare. Sponge flies, also known as spongilla-flies Neuroptera , Sisyridae , are specialist predators of freshwater sponges. The female lays her eggs on vegetation overhanging water. The larvae hatch and drop into the water where they seek out sponges to feed on. They use their elongated mouthparts to pierce the sponge and suck the fluids within.
The larvae of some species cling to the surface of the sponge while others take refuge in the sponge's internal cavities. The fully grown larvae leave the water and spin a cocoon in which to pupate. The Caribbean chicken-liver sponge Chondrilla nucula secretes toxins that kill coral polyps , allowing the sponges to grow over the coral skeletons. Caribbean sponges of the genus Aplysina suffer from Aplysina red band syndrome.
This causes Aplysina to develop one or more rust-colored bands, sometimes with adjacent bands of necrotic tissue. These lesions may completely encircle branches of the sponge. The disease appears to be contagious and impacts approximately 10 percent of A. In addition to hosting photosynthesizing endosymbionts,  sponges are noted for their wide range of collaborations with other organisms. The relatively large encrusting sponge Lissodendoryx colombiensis is most common on rocky surfaces, but has extended its range into seagrass meadows by letting itself be surrounded or overgrown by seagrass sponges, which are distasteful to the local starfish and therefore protect Lissodendoryx against them; in return the seagrass sponges get higher positions away from the sea-floor sediment.
Shrimps of the genus Synalpheus form colonies in sponges, and each shrimp species inhabits a different sponge species, making Synalpheus one of the most diverse crustacean genera. Specifically, Synalpheus regalis utilizes the sponge not only as a food source, but also as a defense against other shrimp and predators. Most sponges are detritivores which filter organic debris particles and microscopic life forms from ocean water.
In particular, sponges occupy an important role as detritivores in coral reef food webs by recycling detritus to higher trophic levels. The hypothesis has been made that coral reef sponges facilitate the transfer of coral-derived organic matter to their associated detritivores via the production of sponge detritus, as shown in the diagram.
Several sponge species are able to convert coral-derived DOM into sponge detritus,   and transfer organic matter produced by corals further up the reef food web. Corals release organic matter as both dissolved and particulate mucus,     as well as cellular material such as expelled Symbiodinium. Besides a one to one symbiotic relationship , it is possible for a host to become symbiotic with a microbial consortium. Sponges are able to host a wide range of microbial communities that can also be very specific.
The sponge as well as the microbial community associated with it will produce a large range of secondary metabolites that help protect it against predators through mechanisms such as chemical defense. Some of these relationships include endosymbionts within bacteriocyte cells, and cyanobacteria or microalgae found below the pinacoderm cell layer where they are able to receive the highest amount of light, used for phototrophy.
They can host over 50 different microbial phyla and candidate phyla, including Alphaprotoebacteria, Actinomycetota , Chloroflexota , Nitrospirota , " Cyanobacteria ", the taxa Gamma-, the candidate phylum Poribacteria , and Thaumarchaea. Linnaeus , who classified most kinds of sessile animals as belonging to the order Zoophyta in the class Vermes , mistakenly identified the genus Spongia as plants in the order Algae. The phylum Porifera is further divided into classes mainly according to the composition of their skeletons :  .
In the s, sponges with massive calcium carbonate skeletons were assigned to a separate class, Sclerospongiae , otherwise known as "coralline sponges". So far scientific publications have identified about 9, poriferan species,  of which: about are glass sponges; about are calcareous species; and the rest are demosponges.
Sponges were traditionally distributed in three classes: calcareous sponges Calcarea , glass sponges Hexactinellida and demosponges Demospongiae. However, studies have shown that the Homoscleromorpha , a group thought to belong to the Demospongiae , is actually phylogenetically well separated. Sponges are divided into classes mainly according to the composition of their skeletons :  These are arranged in evolutionary order as shown below in ascending order of their evolution from top to bottom:.
Although molecular clocks and biomarkers suggest sponges existed well before the Cambrian explosion of life, silica spicules like those of demosponges are absent from the fossil record until the Cambrian. These fossils, which include spicules, pinacocytes , porocytes , archeocytes , sclerocytes and the internal cavity, have been classified as demosponges.
Fossils of glass sponges have been found from around million years ago in rocks in Australia, China and Mongolia. Other probable demosponges have been found in the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna , from to million years ago. Freshwater sponges appear to be much younger, as the earliest known fossils date from the Mid- Eocene period about 48 to 40 million years ago.
A chemical tracer is isopropyl cholestane , which is a stable derivative of isopropyl cholesterol , which is said to be produced by demosponges but not by eumetazoans "true animals", i. Since choanoflagellates are thought to be animals' closest single-celled relatives, a team of scientists examined the biochemistry and genes of one choanoflagellate species. They concluded that this species could not produce isopropylcholesterol but that investigation of a wider range of choanoflagellates would be necessary in order to prove that the fossil isopropylcholestane could only have been produced by demosponges.
While it has been argued that this 'sponge biomarker' could have originated from marine algae, recent research suggests that the algae's ability to produce this biomarker evolved only in the Carboniferous ; as such, the biomarker remains strongly supportive of the presence of demosponges in the Cryogenian. Archaeocyathids , which some classify as a type of coralline sponge, are very common fossils in rocks from the Early Cambrian about to million years ago , but apparently died out by the end of the Cambrian million years ago.
Since the s archaeocyathids have been regarded as a distinctive group of sponges. It is difficult to fit chancelloriids into classifications of sponges or more complex animals. An analysis in concluded that they were closely related to sponges on the grounds that the detailed structure of chancellorid sclerites "armor plates" is similar to that of fibers of spongin, a collagen protein , in modern keratose horny demosponges such as Darwinella.
If this is correct, it would create a dilemma, as it is extremely unlikely that totally unrelated organisms could have developed such similar sclerites independently, but the huge difference in the structures of their bodies makes it hard to see how they could be closely related. In the s sponges were widely regarded as a monophyletic group, all of them having descended from a common ancestor that was itself a sponge, and as the "sister-group" to all other metazoans multi-celled animals , which themselves form a monophyletic group.
On the other hand, some s analyses also revived the idea that animals' nearest evolutionary relatives are choanoflagellates , single-celled organisms very similar to sponges' choanocytes — which would imply that most Metazoa evolved from very sponge-like ancestors and therefore that sponges may not be monophyletic, as the same sponge-like ancestors may have given rise both to modern sponges and to non-sponge members of Metazoa.
Analyses since have concluded that Eumetazoa more complex than sponges are more closely related to particular groups of sponges than to the rest of the sponges. Such conclusions imply that sponges are not monophyletic, because the last common ancestor of all sponges would also be a direct ancestor of the Eumetazoa, which are not sponges.
A study in based on comparisons of ribosome DNA concluded that the most fundamental division within sponges was between glass sponges and the rest, and that Eumetazoa are more closely related to calcareous sponges , those with calcium carbonate spicules, than to other types of sponge. Other anatomical and biochemical evidence links the Eumetazoa with Homoscleromorpha , a sub-group of demosponges.
A comparison in of nuclear DNA , excluding glass sponges and comb jellies , concluded that: Homoscleromorpha are most closely related to Eumetazoa; calcareous sponges are the next closest; the other demosponges are evolutionary "aunts" of these groups; and the chancelloriids , bag-like animals whose fossils are found in Cambrian rocks, may be sponges.
In both Homoscleromorpha and Eumetazoa layers of cells are bound together by attachment to a carpet-like basal membrane composed mainly of "type IV" collagen , a form of collagen not found in other sponges — although the spongin fibers that reinforce the mesohyl of all demosponges is similar to "type IV" collagen. The analyses described above concluded that sponges are closest to the ancestors of all Metazoa, of all multi-celled animals including both sponges and more complex groups.
However, another comparison in of genes in each of 21 genera, ranging from fungi to humans but including only two species of sponge, suggested that comb jellies ctenophora are the most basal lineage of the Metazoa included in the sample. If this is correct, either modern comb jellies developed their complex structures independently of other Metazoa, or sponges' ancestors were more complex and all known sponges are drastically simplified forms.
The study recommended further analyses using a wider range of sponges and other simple Metazoa such as Placozoa. A very large and internally consistent alignment of 1, proteins at the metazoan scale, published in , showed that i sponges — represented by Homoscleromorpha, Calcarea, Hexactinellida, and Demospongiae — are monophyletic, ii sponges are sister-group to all other multicellular animals, iii ctenophores emerge as the second-earliest branching animal lineage, and iv placozoans emerge as the third animal lineage, followed by cnidarians sister-group to bilaterians.
In March , scientists from Dublin found additional evidence that sponges are the sister group to all other animals. A report in described use of sponges as a tool by bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay in Western Australia.
A dolphin will attach a marine sponge to its rostrum , which is presumably then used to protect it when searching for food in the sandy sea bottom. A study in concluded that mothers teach the behavior to their daughters, and that all the sponge-users are closely related, suggesting that it is a fairly recent innovation. The calcium carbonate or silica spicules of most sponge genera make them too rough for most uses, but two genera, Hippospongia and Spongia , have soft, entirely fibrous skeletons.
Until the invention of synthetic sponges, they were used as cleaning tools, applicators for paints and ceramic glazes and discreet contraceptives. However, by the midth century, over-fishing brought both the animals and the industry close to extinction. Many objects with sponge-like textures are now made of substances not derived from poriferans. Synthetic sponges include personal and household cleaning tools , breast implants ,  and contraceptive sponges.
The luffa "sponge", also spelled loofah , which is commonly sold for use in the kitchen or the shower, is not derived from an animal but mainly from the fibrous "skeleton" of the sponge gourd Luffa aegyptiaca , Cucurbitaceae. Sponges have medicinal potential due to the presence in sponges themselves or their microbial symbionts of chemicals that may be used to control viruses , bacteria , tumors and fungi. Lacking any protective shell or means of escape, sponges have evolved to synthesize a variety of unusual compounds.
One such class is the oxidized fatty acid derivatives called oxylipins. Members of this family have been found to have anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. One example isolated from the Okinawan plakortis sponges, plakoridine A , has shown potential as a cytotoxin to murine lymphoma cells.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the phylum of aquatic animal. For the porous cleaning tool, see Sponge tool. For other uses, see Sponge disambiguation. Animals of the phylum Porifera. Further information: Cnidaria and Ctenophore. Water flow. Main syncitium. Choanosyncitium and collar bodies showing interior. Diagram of a syconoid sponge. Archeocytes and other cells in mesohyl.
Calcium carbonate. See also: Sponge ground and Sponge reef. See also: Spongivore. Sponge loop hypothesis. The sponge holobiont. Other metazoans. Main article: Sea sponge aquaculture. Main article: Sponge material. Main article: Sponge isolates. Portals : Marine Life. Earth sciences. Animals in the polish linguistic worldview and in contemporary life sciences". December Current Biology.
PMID Bibcode : PNAS.. PMC April Zoologica Scripta. ISSN Queensland Museum. Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 27 September J Biomed Semantics. ISBN Bibcode : PNAS Bibcode : Natur. S2CID Biological Sciences. June Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Spineless: the science of jellyfish and the art of growing a backbone. Riverhead Books. NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes.
In Anderson DT ed. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. The Anatomical Record. Invertebrate Zoology 7th ed. The Journal of Experimental Biology. Integrative and Comparative Biology. Integrated Principles of Zoology 11th ed.
New York: McGraw-Hill. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on March 19, Retrieved Limnology and Oceanography. Bibcode : LimOc.. CiteSeerX Bibcode : PLoSO CBC News. April 19, Archived from the original on April 19, Nature Precedings.
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