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This approach will look familiar from Chapter 6 : we visualize each topic based on the most frequent terms within it Figure 9. From the top words, we can start to suspect which topics may capture which newsgroups. Topic 1 certainly represents the sci. Just as we did in Chapter 6. Much as we saw in the literature analysis, topic modeling was able to discover the distinct topics present in the text without needing to consult the labels.
This is a realistic example of how LDA might divide documents into rough topics while still allowing a degree of overlap. We can use the sentiment analysis techniques we explored in Chapter 2 to examine how often positive and negative words occurred in these Usenet posts. Which newsgroups were the most positive or negative overall?
This makes sense, since it likely included many positive adjectives about the products that users wanted to sell! For that, we can examine the total positive and negative contributions of each word. Which words had the most effect on sentiment values overall Figure 9. We may also care about which words contributed the most within each newsgroup , so that we can see which newsgroups might be incorrectly estimated.
We can also see how much sentiment is confounded with topic. This helps remind us that sentiment analysis can be confounded by topic, and that we should always examine the influential words before interpreting it too deeply. We can also try finding the most positive and negative individual messages, by grouping and summarizing by id rather than newsgroup.
As a simple measure to reduce the role of randomness, we filtered out messages that had fewer than five words that contributed to sentiment. To assist in this we could write a short function for printing a specified message. How about the most negative message? The Usenet dataset is a much larger corpus of more modern text, so we may be interested in how sentiment analysis may be reversed in this text. We hope that these examples show how much all tidy text analyses have in common with each other, and indeed with all tidy data analyses.
Describes the subject or topic of the message. Note that this header is mandatory on Usenet despite being optional for e-mail; it is important because it is used by readers to decide what messages to open. Provides a unique code for identifying a message; normally generated when a message is sent. The message ID is very important in Usenet, arguably more so than in e-mail. The reason is that delivery of e-mail is performed based on recipient e-mail addresses, while the propagation of Usenet messages is controlled using the message ID header.
This is an informational field that shows the path of servers that a particular copy of a message followed to get to the server where it is being read. Each time a server forwards a Usenet article, it adds its own name to the list in the Path header. The entries are usually separated by exclamation points. It is possible to reply back to a Usenet article author using e-mail, which by default goes to the address in the From: line.
If this header is present, the address it contains is used instead of the default From: address. This header indicates the e-mail address of the user who is sending the message, if different from the message originator. This is functionally the same as the Sender: header in e-mail messages, but is used in a slightly different way.
Normally, when a Usenet message is posted, the sender's e-mail address is automatically filled in to the From: line. If the user manually specifies a different From: line, the address from which the message was actually sent is usually included in the Sender: line. This is used to track the true originating point of articles. A reply to a Usenet message is usually made back to Usenet itself, and is called a follow-up. By default, a follow-up goes to the newsgroup s specified in the original message's Newsgroups: header.
However, if the Followup-To: header is included, follow-ups to that message go to the newsgroups specified in the Followup-To: header instead. Note, however, that when a user replies to a message, this field only controls what appears in the new message's Newsgroups: line by default. The user can override the Newsgroups: header manually. All Usenet messages are maintained on each server for only a certain period of time, due to storage limitations.
The expiration interval for each newsgroup is controlled by the administrator of each site. If present, this line requests a different expiration for a particular message; it is usually used only for special articles. For example, if a weekly announcement is posted every Monday morning, each article might be set to expire the following Monday morning, to make sure that people see the most current version.
This header lists the message IDs of prior messages in a conversation. This is used by software to group together articles into conversations called threads to make it easier to follow discussions on busy newsgroups. Indicates that the article is a control message and specifies a control action to be performed, such as creating a new newsgroup.
By default, most messages are propagated on Usenet worldwide. If specified, this line restricts the distribution of a message to a smaller area, either geographical or organizational. Describes the organization to which the article sender belongs.
Contains a list of comma-separated keywords that may be of use to the readers of the message. Keywords can be useful when searching for messages on a particular subject matter. This header is not often used. A short summary of the message; again, rarely used in practice.
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